alexa Melanoma-associated antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta

Author(s): Kirkin AF, Dzhandzhugazyan K, Zeuthen J

Abstract Share this page

Abstract During the last 7 years significant progress has been made in the identification of melanoma-associated antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). These antigens belong to three main groups: cancer/testis-specific antigens (MAGE, BAGE, GAGE, PRAME and NY-ESO-1), melanocyte differentiation antigens (tyrosinase, Melan-A/MART-1, gp100, TRP-1 and TRP-2), and mutated or aberrantly expressed antigens (MUM-1, CDK4, beta-catenin, gp100-in4, p15 and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V). In this review we have summarized the available data concerning the characterization of melanoma-associated antigens, focusing on their immunogenic and protective properties. The development of a strong immune response to differentiation antigens is limited by the existence of tolerance to these "self"-antigens, permitting the involvement of only T cells with low affinity T-cell receptors. Among the melanoma differentiation antigens, only gp100 has been shown to be a tumor regression antigen. The cancer/testis-specific antigens such as MAGE and PRAME should potentially be highly immunogenic antigens. They contain several potential HLA class I binding epitopes and are present only in the testes, which are not accessible to the cells of the immune system owing to the lack of direct contact with the immune cells and the lack of HLA class I expression on the surface of germ cells. But only two patients have been found who responded to these antigens in vivo, indicating their genuinely low immunogenicity. A comparison of the predicted secondary structures of these two groups of antigens (cancer/testis-specific and differentiation antigens) revealed enrichment of long alpha-helical stretches in the cancer/testis-specific antigens. We hypothesize that such highly organized stable structures could, first, reduce denaturation of the protein and, thus, ubiquitinylation as a degradation signal, and, second, diminish the efficiency of the protein unfolding - a necessary step in the proteolytic cleavage by proteasomes. High structural stability could therefore be responsible for the low immunogenicity of these proteins. In this case, modifications decreasing the stability of these proteins might be a means of improving the immune response to these potentially therapeutically useful antigens.
This article was published in APMIS and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]online.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords