Author(s): Qu J, Rizak JD, Li X, Li J, Ma Y, Qu J, Rizak JD, Li X, Li J, Ma Y, Qu J, Rizak JD, Li X, Li J, Ma Y, Qu J, Rizak JD, Li X, Li J, Ma Y
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Abstract A number of studies have suggested that melatonin possesses anticancer properties. However, conflicting data exists with regard to the role of melatonin in the treatment of cancer. In the present study, the effects of melatonin on the transcriptional regulation of three genes associated with cell proliferation (Nestin, Bmi-1 and Sox2), and on C6 glioma cell survival and viability, were investigated in vitro to evaluate the use of melatonin in cancer therapy. Melatonin was shown to increase the mRNA levels of Nestin, Bmi-1 and Sox2 in a similar pattern, with the highest mRNA levels noted at a concentration of 3 mM. At higher concentrations of melatonin (5 mM), the mRNA levels of Nestin, Bmi-1 and Sox2 were reduced from their peak levels, and were correlated with changes observed in immunofluorescence morphology studies, cell viability and survival assays. Immunofluorescence studies of Nestin-stained cells demonstrated that treatment with a higher concentration of melatonin (3 and 5 mM) led to the Nestin filaments condensing and rearranging around the cell nuclei, and an alteration in the cell morphology. C6 cell viability was also significantly decreased at 3 mM melatonin, and cell death was observed at 5 and 10 mM melatonin. These results suggested that Nestin, Bmi-1 and Sox2 were strongly correlated with the survival of C6 cells following treatment with melatonin, and that high therapeutic concentrations of melatonin (>5 mM) were required to induce cell death. These findings suggested that the implementation of melatonin in the treatment of glioma and other types of cancer may be inhibited by conflicting cell growth signals in cells. Therefore, adjunct therapy is required to improve the efficacy of melatonin in the treatment of cancer.
This article was published in Oncol Lett
and referenced in Journal of Integrative Oncology