Author(s): Paige LA, Zheng GQ, DeFrees SA, Cassady JM, Geahlen RL
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Abstract The importance of myristoylation for the proper biological functioning of many acylated proteins has generated interest in the enzymes of the myristoylation pathway and their interactions with substrates and inhibitors. Previous observations that S-(2-oxopentadecyl)-CoA, a nonhydrolyzable methylene-bridged analogue of myristoyl-CoA, was a potent inhibitor of myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) [Paige, L. A., Zheng, G.-q., DeFrees, S. A., Cassady, J. M., & Geahlen, R. L. (1989) J. Med. Chem. 32, 1665] prompted a closer examination of the effect of substituents at the 2-position on the interactions of myristic acid and myristoyl-CoA analogues with NMT. As an initial approach, three myristic acid derivatives bearing different substituents at the 2-position, 2-fluoromyristic acid, 2-bromomyristic acid, and 2-hydroxymyristic acid, were selected for study. Both 2-bromomyristic acid and 2-hydroxymyristic acid were available commercially; 2-fluoromyristic acid was prepared synthetically. All three compounds were found to be only weak inhibitors of NMT in vitro. Of the three, 2-bromomyristic acid was the most potent (Ki = 100 microM). In cultured cells, however, 2-hydroxymyristic acid was by far the more effective inhibitor of protein myristoylation. Neither 2-hydroxymyristic acid nor 2-bromomyristic acid significantly inhibited protein palmitoylation in cultured cells, indicating that inhibition was not occurring at the level of acyl-CoA synthetase. Activation of the 2-substituted myristic acid derivatives to their corresponding acyl-CoA thioesters by acyl-CoA synthetase resulted in inhibitors of greatly increased potency. The 2-substituted acyl-CoA analogues, 2-hydroxymyristoyl-CoA, 2-bromomyristoyl-CoA, and 2-fluoromyristoyl-CoA, were synthesized and shown to be competitive inhibitors of NMT in vitro (Ki's = 45, 450, and 200 nM, respectively). These data suggested that the enhanced inhibitory potency of 2-hydroxymyristic acid seen in cells was most probably a result of its metabolic activation to the CoA thioester. The presence of substituents at the 2-position also affected the ability of the acyl group to be transferred by NMT to a peptide substrate. Of the three acyl-CoA analogues, only 2-fluoromyristoyl-CoA served as a substrate for NMT.
This article was published in Biochemistry
and referenced in Virology & Mycology