Author(s): Ditschuneit HH, FlechtnerMors M, Johnson TD, Adler G
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic disease that has become one of the most serious health problems in Western society. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the long-term effects of an energy-restricted diet combined with 1 or 2 daily meal replacements on body weight and biomarkers of disease risk in 100 obese patients. DESIGN: Phase 1 consisted of a 3-mo, prospective, randomized, parallel intervention study of 2 dietary interventions to reduce weight. The energy-restricted diet (5.2-6.3 MJ/d) consisted of conventional foods (group A) or an isoenergetic diet with 2 meals and 2 snacks replaced daily by energy-controlled, vitamin-and-mineral-supplemented prepared foods (group B). Phase 2 consisted of a 24-mo, case-control, weight-maintenance study with an energy-restricted diet and 1 meal and 1 snack replaced daily for all patients. RESULTS: Total weight loss (as a percentage of initial body weight) was 5.9+/-5.0\% in group A and 11.3+/-6.8\% in group B (P < 0.0001). During phase 1, mean weight loss in group B (n = 50) was 7.1+/-3.5 kg, with significant reductions in plasma triacylglycerol, glucose, and insulin concentrations (P < 0.0001). Group A patients (n = 50) lost an average of 1.3+/-2.2 kg with no significant improvements in these biomarkers. During phase 2, both groups lost on average an additional 0.07\% of their initial body weight every month (P < 0.01). During the 27-mo study, both groups experienced significant reductions in systolic blood pressure and plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, glucose, and insulin (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These findings support the hypothesis that defined meal replacements can be used for successful, long-term weight control and improvements in certain biomarkers of disease risk.
This article was published in Am J Clin Nutr
and referenced in Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy