Author(s): Nuttall FQ, Schweim K, Hoover H, Gannon MC
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Abstract We recently reported that in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes a 5-wk diet of 30:30:40 carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio resulted in a significant decrease in 24-h integrated glucose, total \%glycohemoglobin, and total cholesterol compared with a control diet of 55:15:30 carbohydrate/protein/fat given at the beginning of the 5-wk period. Body weight was stable and insulin was unchanged. We now present data on other hormones and metabolites considered to be affected by dietary macronutrient changes. The test diet resulted in an elevated fasting plasma total IGF-I, but not growth hormone. Urinary free cortisol was increased. Serum renin and urinary aldosterone remained unchanged. Blood pressure was stable. Serum creatinine and uric acid were increased. Urinary microalbumin was decreased. Creatinine clearance, serum B(12), folate, homocysteine, TSH, and free thyroxine were unchanged. Total triiodothyronine was decreased. Plasma alpha-amino nitrogen, urea nitrogen, and serum albumin were increased. Urea production rate was increased such that a new steady state was present. The calculated urea production rate accounted for 84\% of protein ingested on the control diet but only 68\% on the test diet, suggesting net nitrogen retention on the latter. Overall, the lack of negative effects, the improved glucose control, and the positive nitrogen balance suggest such a diet will be beneficial for older subjects with type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, the long-term effects and general applicability of the diet remain to be determined.
This article was published in Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab
and referenced in Journal of Osteoporosis and Physical Activity