Author(s): Alebiosu CO, Odusan BO
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Each component of metabolic syndrome (MS) conveys increased cardiovascular disease risk, but as a combination they become much more powerful. Vigorous early management of the syndrome may have a significant impact on the prevention of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. AIM: This study aims to determine the frequency of occurrence of MS and its relation to cardiovascular events among patients with type-2 diabetic mellitus. METHODS: The study group consisted of 218 type-2 diabetic patients. These were screened for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, microalbuminuria, and cardiovascular events. RESULTS: There were 128 (58.7\%) males and 90 (41.3\%) females. The mean age was 53.4 +/- 6.3 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 25.5 +/- 5.4 (males-23.4 +/- 4.2; females-26.2 +/- 5.7). MS was present in 55 (25.2\%) of the study population. Systemic hypertension was the most common component of MS seen in 84 (38.5\%) patients. The mean serum total cholesterol was 168.6 +/- 25.8 mg\% (men 153 +/- 23; women 169 +/- 19; p > 0.05). Eight female and 12 male patients had serum total cholesterol > or = 200 mg\%. Dyslipidemia occurs more commonly in males than females. Obesity was more common in female patients than in males. Out of 128 male type-2 patients with diabetes seen, 111 (86.7\%) were without microalbuminuria. The corresponding figure among the females was 90\% (81 out of 90 patients). CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that MS was present in 25.2\% of the study population. The syndrome and its different components were positively associated with a higher risk of stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and occurrence of microalbuminuria, p < 0.001. Ischemic heart disease occurs rarely in the population. A long-term, targeted, intensive intervention involving multiple cardiovascular risk factors is recommended to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular and microvascular events among patients with type-2 diabetic mellitus.
This article was published in J Natl Med Assoc
and referenced in Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy