Author(s): Strmer E, von Moltke LL, Shader RI, Greenblatt DJ
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Abstract The metabolism of the antidepressant mirtazapine (MIR) was investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant enzymes. Mean K(m) values (+/-S.D., n = 4) were 136 (+/-44) microM for MIR-hydroxylation, 242 (+/-34) microM for N-demethylation, and 570 (+/-281) microM for N-oxidation in HLM. Based on the K(m) and V(max) values, MIR-8-hydroxylation, N-demethylation, and N-oxidation contributed 55, 35, and 10\%, respectively, to MIR biotransformation in HLM at an anticipated in vivo liver MIR concentration of 2 microM. Recombinant CYP predicted a 65\% contribution of CYP2D6 to MIR-hydroxylation at 2 microM MIR, decreasing to 20\% at 250 microM. CYP1A2 contribution increased correspondingly from 30 to 50\%. In HLM, quinidine and alpha-naphthoflavone reduced MIR-hydroxylation to 75 and 45\% of control, respectively, at 250 microM MIR. A >50\% contribution of CYP3A4 to MIR-N-demethylation at <1 microM MIR was indicated by recombinant enzymes. In HLM, ketoconazole (1 microM) reduced N-desmethylmirtazapine formation rates to 60\% of control at 250 microM. Twenty percent of MIR-N-oxidation was accounted for by CYP3A4 at 2 microM MIR, increasing to 85\% at 250 microM, while CYP1A2 contribution decreased from 80 to 15\%. Ketoconazole reduced MIR-N-oxidation to 50\% of control at 250 microM. MIR did not substantially inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP1E2, and CYP3A4 activity in vitro. Induction/inhibition or genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 may affect MIR metabolism, but involvement of several enzymes in different metabolic pathways may prevent large alterations in in vivo drug clearance.
This article was published in Drug Metab Dispos
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals