alexa Microbial control of malaria: biological warfare against the parasite and its vector.


Journal of Socialomics

Author(s): AbdulGhani R, AlMekhlafi AM, Alabsi MS

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Abstract Microbial applications in malaria transmission control have drawn global attention. Mosquito midgut microbiota can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Paratransgenic manipulation of bacterial symbionts and Wolbachia can affect reproductive characteristics of mosquitoes. Bacillus-based biolarvicides can control mosquito larvae in different breeding habitats, but their effectiveness differs according to the type of formulation applied, and the physical and ecological conditions of the environment. Entomopathogenic fungi show promise as effective and evolution-proof agents against adult mosquitoes. In addition, transgenic fungi can express anti-plasmodial effector molecules that can target the parasite inside its vector. Despite showing effectiveness in domestic environments as well as against insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, claims towards their deployability in the field and their possible use in integrated vector management programmes have yet to be investigated. Viral pathogens show efficacy in the interruption of sporogonic development of the parasite, and protozoal pathogens exert direct pathogenic potential on larvae and adults with substantial effects on mosquito longevity and fecundity. However, the technology required for their isolation and maintenance impedes their field application. Many agents show promising findings; however, the question remains about the epidemiologic reality of these approaches because even those that have been tried under field conditions still have certain limitations. This review addresses aspects of the microbial control of malaria between proof-of-concept and epidemiologic reality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This article was published in Acta Trop and referenced in Journal of Socialomics

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