alexa Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons. Catabolism of 1-phenylalkanes by Nocardia salmonicolor.
Environmental Sciences

Environmental Sciences

Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation

Author(s): Sariaslani FS, Harper DB, Higgins IJ

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Abstract 1. Nocardia salmonicolor grew on a variety of alkanes, 1-phenylalkanes and 1-cyclo-hexylalkanes as sole carbon and energy sources. 2. Growth on 1-phenyldodecane in batch culture was diauxic. Isocitrate lyase activity was induced during lag phase, reaching a maximum activity in the first growth phase, during which both the aromatic ring and the side chain were degraded. However, 4-phenylbutyrate, 4-phenylbut-3-enoate, 4-phenylbut-2-enoate, 3-phenylpropionate, cinnamate and phenylacetate accumulated in the growth medium. These compounds disappeared at the onset of diauxic lag and four hydroxylated compounds accumulated; one was 4-(o-hydroxyphenyl)but-3-enoate and another was identified as 4-(o-hydroxyphenyl)butyrate. These compounds were utilized during the second growth phase. 3. Washed 1-phenyldodecane-grown cells oxidized acetate, cinnamate, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate, homogentisate, o-, m- and p-hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetate, and 4-phenylbutyrate rapidly without lag. 4. Extracts of such cells rapidly oxidized homogentisate,3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate, catechol and protocatechuate. 5. The organism grew readily on 4-phenylbutyrate, phenylacetate, o-hydroxyphenylacetate, homogentisate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate as sole carbon energy sources, but growth was slow on cinnamate and 4-phenylbut-3-enoate. 6. When cinnamate and phenylacetate were sole carbon sources for growth, phenylacetate and o-hydroxyphenylacetate respectively were detected in culture supernatants. 4-Phenylbut-3-enoate and 4-phenylbutyrate both yielded a mixture of cinnamate and phenylacetate. 7. It is proposed that 1-phenyldodecane is catabolized by omega-oxidation of the terminal methyl group, side-chain beta-oxidation to 4-phenylbutyrate, both beta- and alpha-oxidation to phenylacetic acid, hydroxylation to homogentisate via o-hydroxyphenylacetate and ring cleavage to maleylacetoacetate. Catabolism via 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate may also occur. 8. Growth on 1-phenylnonane was also diauxic and cinnamic acid, phenylpropionic acid, benzoic acid and hydroxyphenylpentanoic acid accumulated in the medium. Respirometric data and ring-cleavage enzyme activities showed similar patterns to those obtained after growth on 1-phenyldodecane. The results suggest that the main catabolic routes for 1-phenyldodecane and 1-phenylnonane may converge at cinnamate. 9. Possible reasons for diauxie are discussed.
This article was published in Biochem J and referenced in Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation

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