Author(s): Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Carnevali O, Picchietti S, Avella M,
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Abstract The interactions between the endogenous gut microbiota and the fish host are integral in mediating the development, maintenance and effective functionality of the intestinal mucosa and gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs). These microbial populations also provide a level of protection against pathogenic visitors to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and aid host digestive function via the production of exogenous digestive enzymes and vitamins. Manipulation of these endogenous populations may provide an alternative method to antibiotics to control disease and promote health management. Applications of probiotics for Mediterranean teleosts can stimulate immune responses, enhance growth performance, feed utilisation, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant enzyme activities, gene expression, disease resistance, larval survival, gut morphology, modulate GI microbiota and mediate stress responses. Although considerably less information is available regarding prebiotic applications for Mediterranean teleosts, prebiotics also offer benefits with regards to improving immune status and fish production. Despite the promising potential benefits demonstrated in current literature, obtaining consistent and reliable results is often difficult due to our incomplete understanding of indigenous fish GI microbiota and their subsequent host interactions which mediate and drive both localised and systemic host immunological responses. Additionally, the probiotic and prebiotic (biotics) mechanisms which mediate host benefits at the mucosal interface are poorly understood. Future studies focused on these interactions utilising gnotobiotic techniques should provide a better understanding of how to extract the full potential of biotic applications to promote immune function of Mediterranean teleosts. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This article was published in Fish Shellfish Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development