Author(s): Pauley KM, Cha S, Chan EK
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Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small conserved non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by targeting the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for degradation or translational repression. miRNA-mediated gene regulation is critical for normal cellular functions such as the cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis, and as much as one-third of human mRNAs may be miRNA targets. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs play a vital role in the regulation of immunological functions and the prevention of autoimmunity. Here we review the many newly discovered roles of miRNA regulation in immune functions and in the development of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease. Specifically, we discuss the involvement of miRNA regulation in innate and adaptive immune responses, immune cell development, T regulatory cell stability and function, and differential miRNA expression in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
This article was published in J Autoimmun
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology