alexa Microsatellites within genes: structure, function, and evolution.
Biomedical Sciences

Biomedical Sciences

Biology and Medicine

Author(s): Li YC, Korol AB, Fahima T, Nevo E

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Recently, increasingly more microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been found and characterized within protein-coding genes and their untranslated regions (UTRs). These data provide useful information to study possible SSR functions. Here, we review SSR distributions within expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genes including protein-coding, 3'-UTRs and 5'-UTRs, and introns; and discuss the consequences of SSR repeat-number changes in those regions of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Strong evidence shows that SSRs are nonrandomly distributed across protein-coding regions, UTRs, and introns. Substantial data indicates that SSR expansions and/or contractions in protein-coding regions can lead to a gain or loss of gene function via frameshift mutation or expanded toxic mRNA. SSR variations in 5'-UTRs could regulate gene expression by affecting transcription and translation. The SSR expansions in the 3'-UTRs cause transcription slippage and produce expanded mRNA, which can be accumulated as nuclear foci, and which can disrupt splicing and, possibly, disrupt other cellular function. Intronic SSRs can affect gene transcription, mRNA splicing, or export to cytoplasm. Triplet SSRs located in the UTRs or intron can also induce heterochromatin-mediated-like gene silencing. All these effects caused by SSR expansions or contractions within genes can eventually lead to phenotypic changes. SSRs within genes evolve through mutational processes similar to those for SSRs located in other genomic regions including replication slippage, point mutation, and recombination. These mutational processes generate DNA changes that should be connected by DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system. Mutation that has escaped from the MMR system correction would become new alleles at the SSR loci, and then regulate and/or change gene products, and eventually lead to phenotype changes. Therefore, SSRs within genes should be subjected to stronger selective pressure than other genomic regions because of their functional importance. These SSRs may provide a molecular basis for fast adaptation to environmental changes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This article was published in Mol Biol Evol and referenced in Biology and Medicine

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords