Author(s): Yang G, Wang G, Hou W, Yang G, Wang G, Hou W
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Abstract A novel and economical microwave route has been developed for the synthesis of electrochemically active LiV(3)O(8) material by using a domestic microwave oven. The heating behavior of the designed reaction system guided the preparation of LiV(3)O(8) at a suitable irradiation power (i.e. heating rate), reaction time, and temperature. At the lowest irradiation power, the conversion fraction of reactants was mainly controlled by reaction temperature. Characterization results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, and BET surface areas indicated that the phases of samples prepared by microwave and traditional methods were in good agreement. Nevertheless, the crystallinity, crystallite configuration, and morphology of the samples were different, and were affected by the irradiation time and power. A floppy superposition structure of nanosheets (the size of one nanosheet was about 4.5 microm x 1.2 microm x 3 nm) was preferentially grown at the lowest irradiation power, and this effect on structure was more in evidence as the nanorods formed at the highest irradiation power. Electrochemical studies on ionic conductivity, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge-discharge capacity were carried out. It was found that the conductivity, first discharge capacity, and cycle performances of the samples were affected by the crystal size, crystallinity, and crystal configuration and defection concentration. The sample L30 prepared at the lowest irradiation power and the shortest time (30 min) showed the highest discharge capacity (335 mAh/g), but its discharge capacity decreased rapidly. By comparison, the sample L100 had a floppy superposition structure of nanosheets and a high surface area, provided a good two-dimensional channel for the transition of Li(+) ions, and was stable during the intercalation/deintercalation process of Li(+) ions, therefore the high ionic conductivity, high discharge capacity, and good cycle performance were presented. The relationship between the electrochemical properties and the irradiation power was discussed.
This article was published in J Phys Chem B
and referenced in Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering