alexa Mitochondria in heart failure: the emerging role of mitochondrial dynamics
Diabetes & Endocrinology

Diabetes & Endocrinology

Journal of Metabolic Syndrome

Author(s): Jos MarnGarca, Alexander T Akhmedov, Gordon W Moe

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Over the past decade, mitochondria have emerged as critical integrators of energy production, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), multiple cell death, and signaling pathways in the constantly beating heart. Clarification of the molecular mechanisms, underlying mitochondrial ROS generation and ROS-induced cell death pathways, associated with cardiovascular diseases, by itself remains an important aim; more recently, mitochondrial dynamics has emerged as an important active mechanism to maintain normal mitochondria number and morphology, both are necessary to preserve cardiomyocytes integrity. The two opposing processes, division (fission) and fusion, determine the cell type-specific mitochondrial morphology, the intracellular distribution and activity. The tightly controlled balance between fusion and fission is of particular importance in the high energy demanding cells, such as cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscles, and neuronal cells. A shift toward fission will lead to mitochondrial fragmentation, observed in quiescent cells, while a shift toward fusion will result in the formation of large mitochondrial networks, found in metabolically active cardiomyocytes. Defects in mitochondrial dynamics have been associated with various human disorders, including heart failure, ischemia reperfusion injury, diabetes, and aging. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial function in the heart, further focused research is needed to translate this knowledge into the development of new therapies for various ailments.

This article was published in Heart Fail Rev and referenced in Journal of Metabolic Syndrome

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