alexa Modeling Cadmium Exposures in Low- and High-Exposure Areas in Thailand
Environmental Sciences

Environmental Sciences

Journal of Pollution Effects & Control

Author(s): Soisungwan Satarug, Witaya Swaddiwudhipong, Werawan Ruangyuttikarn, Muneko Nishijo, Patricia Ruiz

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Background: Previous U.S. population modeling studies have reported that urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion patterns differ with age, sex, and dietary exposure; associations between Cd exposures and health outcomes also have differed by age and sex. Therefore, it is important to test models used to estimate Cd exposures across an expanded Cd-exposure range.
Objectives: We estimated relative Cd exposures from both diet and smoking in low- and high-exposure scenarios to provide data for improving risk assessment calculations.
Methods: We used a Cd toxicokinetic–based model to estimate Cd exposures based on urinary Cd levels measured for 399 persons in a low-exposure area (Bangkok) and 6,747 persons in a high-exposure area (Mae Sot) in Thailand.
Results: In Bangkok, we estimated dietary Cd exposures of 50–56 µg/day for males and 21–27 µg/day for females 20–59 years of age who never smoked. In Mae Sot, we estimated dietary Cd exposures of 188–224 µg/day for males and 99–113 µg/day for females 20–59 years of age who never smoked. In Bangkok, we estimated Cd exposures from smoking to be 5.5–20.4 µg/day for male smokers 20–59 years of age. In Mae Sot, we estimated Cd exposures from smoking to be 9.8–26 µg/day for male heavy smokers and 26 µg/day for female heavy smokers.
Conclusion: This study provides estimates of Cd exposures from diet and smoking in low- and high-exposure scenarios. Our findings suggest a relatively small safety margin between the established tolerable Cd reference exposure of 62 µg/day and exposure levels previously associated with evidence of kidney and bone effects in Mae Sot residents, where dietary Cd exposures among women were only 1.6–2.1 times the reference value.

This article was published in Environmental Health Perspectives and referenced in Journal of Pollution Effects & Control

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