Author(s): Soisungwan Satarug, Witaya Swaddiwudhipong, Werawan Ruangyuttikarn, Muneko Nishijo, Patricia Ruiz
Background: Previous U.S. population modeling studies have reported that urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion patterns differ with age, sex, and dietary exposure; associations between Cd exposures and health outcomes also have differed by age and sex. Therefore, it is important to test models used to estimate Cd exposures across an expanded Cd-exposure range.
Objectives: We estimated relative Cd exposures from both diet and smoking in low- and high-exposure scenarios to provide data for improving risk assessment calculations.
Methods: We used a Cd toxicokinetic–based model to estimate Cd exposures based on urinary Cd levels measured for 399 persons in a low-exposure area (Bangkok) and 6,747 persons in a high-exposure area (Mae Sot) in Thailand.
Results: In Bangkok, we estimated dietary Cd exposures of 50–56 µg/day for males and 21–27 µg/day for females 20–59 years of age who never smoked. In Mae Sot, we estimated dietary Cd exposures of 188–224 µg/day for males and 99–113 µg/day for females 20–59 years of age who never smoked. In Bangkok, we estimated Cd exposures from smoking to be 5.5–20.4 µg/day for male smokers 20–59 years of age. In Mae Sot, we estimated Cd exposures from smoking to be 9.8–26 µg/day for male heavy smokers and 26 µg/day for female heavy smokers.
Conclusion: This study provides estimates of Cd exposures from diet and smoking in low- and high-exposure scenarios. Our findings suggest a relatively small safety margin between the established tolerable Cd reference exposure of 62 µg/day and exposure levels previously associated with evidence of kidney and bone effects in Mae Sot residents, where dietary Cd exposures among women were only 1.6–2.1 times the reference value.