Author(s): Hu FB, Goldberg J, Hedeker D, Henderson WG
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Abstract The co-twin control design has been widely used in studying the effects of environmental factors on the development of diseases. For binary outcomes that arise from co-twin control studies, the conditional likelihood method is commonly used. This approach, however, does not readily extend to ordinal response data because the standard conditional likelihood does not exist for cumulative logit or proportional odds models. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of the random-effects and GEE approaches in analysing ordinal response data from co-twin control studies. Using both approaches, we re-analyse data from a co-twin control study of the impact of military services during the Vietnam era on post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). The ordinal models have considerably increased power in detecting the effects of exposure when compared to the analyses using a dichotomized response. We discuss the interpretation of the estimates from GEE and random-effect models in the context of the twin data.
This article was published in Stat Med
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy