Author(s): Sisu E, Flangea C, Serb A, Zamfir AD
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Abstract Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) are special types of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides able to regulate vital biological functions that depend on precise motifs of their constituent hexose sequences and the extent and location of their sulfation. As a result, the need for better understanding of CS/DS biological role called for the elaboration and application of straightforward strategies for their composition and structure elucidation. Due to its high sensitivity, reproducibility, and the possibility to rapidly generate data on fine CS/DS structure determinants, mass spectrometry (MS) based on either electrospray ionization (ESI) or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) brought a major progress in the field. Here, modern developments in MS of CS/DS GAGs are gathered in a critical review covering the past 5 years. The first section is dedicated to protocols for CS/DS extraction from parent proteoglycan, digestion, and purification that are among critical prerequisites of a successful MS experiment. The second part highlights several MALDI MS aspects, the requirements, and applications of this ionization method to CS/DS investigation. An ample chapter is devoted to ESI MS strategies, which employ either capillary- or advanced chip-based sample infusion in combination with multistage MS (MS(n)) using either collision-induced (CID) or electron detachment dissociation (EDD). At last, the potential of two versatile separation techniques, capillary electrophoresis (CE), and liquid chromatography (LC) in off- and/or on-line coupling with ESI MS and MS(n), is discussed, alongside an assessment of particular buffer/solvent conditions and instrumental parameters required for CS/DS mixture separation followed by on-line mass analysis of individual components.
This article was published in Amino Acids
and referenced in Journal of Glycomics & Lipidomics