alexa Modulation of mitochondrial functions by the indirect antioxidant sulforaphane: a seemingly contradictory dual role and an integrative hypothesis.
Nutrition

Nutrition

Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences

Author(s): NegretteGuzmn M, HuertaYepez S, Tapia E, PedrazaChaverri J

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Abstract The chemotherapeutic isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SFN) was early linked to anticarcinogenic and antiproliferative activities. Soon after, this compound, derived from cruciferous vegetables, became an excellent and useful trial for anti-cancer research in experimental models including growth tumor, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Many subsequent reports showed modifications in mitochondrial signaling, functionality, and integrity induced by SFN. When cytoprotective effects were found in toxic and ischemic insult models, seemingly contradictory behaviors of SFN were discovered: SFN was inducing deleterious changes in cancer cell mitochondria that eventually would carry the cell to death via apoptosis and also was protecting noncancer cell mitochondria against oxidative challenge, which prevented cell death. In both cases, SFN exhibited effects on mitochondrial redox balance and phase II enzyme expression, mitochondrial membrane potential, expression of the family of B cell lymphoma 2 homologs, regulation of proapoptotic proteins released from mitochondria, activation/inactivation of caspases, mitochondrial respiratory complex activities, oxygen consumption and bioenergetics, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, and modulation of some kinase pathways. With the ultimate findings related to the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis by SFN, it could be considered that SFN has effects on mitochondrial dynamics that explain some divergent points. In this review, we list the reports involving effects on mitochondrial modulation by SFN in anti-cancer models as well as in cytoprotective models against oxidative damage. We also attempt to integrate the data into a mechanism explaining the various effects of SFN on mitochondrial function in only one concept, taking into account mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and making a comparison with the theory of reactive oxygen species threshold of cell death. Our interest is to achieve a complete view of cancer and protective therapies based on SFN that can be extended to other chemotherapeutic compounds with similar characteristics. The work needed to test this hypothesis is quite extensive. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This article was published in Free Radic Biol Med and referenced in Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences

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