Author(s): Wahren J, Shafqat J, Johansson J, Chibalin A, Ekberg K,
Abstract Share this page
Abstract New results present C-peptide as a biologically active peptide hormone in its own right. Although C-peptide is formed from proinsulin and cosecreted with insulin, it is a separate entity with biochemical and physiological characteristics that differ from those of insulin. There is direct evidence of stereospecific binding of C-peptide to a cell surface receptor, which is different from those for insulin and other related hormones. The C-peptide binding site is most likely a G-protein-coupled receptor. The association constant for C-peptide binding is approximately 3 x 10(9) M(-1). Saturation of the binding occurs already at a concentration of about 1 nM, which explains why C-peptide effects are not observed in healthy subjects. Binding of C-peptide results in activation of Ca2+ and MAPK-dependent pathways and stimulation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase and eNOS activities. The latter 2 enzymes are both deficient in several tissues in type 1 diabetes. There is some evidence that C-peptide, and insulin may interact synergistically on the insulin signaling pathway. Clinical evidence suggests that replacement of C-peptide, together with regular insulin therapy, may be beneficial in patients with type 1 diabetes and serve to retard or prevent the development of long-term complications.
This article was published in Exp Diabesity Res
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism