Author(s): Ahmed M, Singh MN, Bera AK, Bandyopadhyay S, Bhattacharya D
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Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitism is the most serious constraint throughout the world in small ruminants which causes significant production loss in animals. GI parasites are major contributor to reduce productivity in terms of meat, milk and wool in animals. Control of GI parasite is done primarily by anthelmintic treatment where choice and schedule of treatment is done after identification and quantitation of individual parasite. Identification of GI parasites is done through microscopic method by identifying specific morphological characteristics of egg and larva (L(3)). Since most of parasite eggs are having similar morphological characteristics, identification up to species level through microscopy is not possible in most of cases. To address this issue, molecular techniques are the viable alternative for identification of species as well as molecular level differences within a species (isolates) of parasites. Different DNA based molecular techniques viz. PCR, AFLP, RAPD, RFLP, PCR-SSCP, real time PCR, DNA microarray etc. have been used for identification and to assess the genetic diversity among parasite population. For identification of species, the characteristic sequence of genomic DNA of different species should differ to allow the delineation of species, but at the same time, no/minor variation within the species should exist. In contrast, for purpose of identifying population variants (strains/isolates), a considerable degree of variation in the sequence should exist within a species. Various target regions, including nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or repetitive DNA elements (microsatellite loci), which show considerable variation in the number of repeats within individuals have been employed to achieve the identification of parasites species or strain. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Asian Pac J Trop Med
and referenced in Advancements in Genetic Engineering