alexa Molecular basis for improved anthrax vaccines.
General Science

General Science

Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense

Author(s): Brey RN

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The current vaccine for anthrax has been licensed since 1970 and was developed based on the outcome of human trials conducted in the 1950s. This vaccine, known as anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA), consists of a culture filtrate from an attenuated strain of Bacillus anthracis adsorbed to aluminum salts as an adjuvant. This vaccine is considered safe and effective, but is difficult to produce and is associated with complaints about reactogenicity among users of the vaccine. Much of the work in the past decade on generating a second generation vaccine is based on the observation that antibodies to protective antigen (PA) are crucial in the protection against exposure to virulent anthrax spores. Antibodies to PA are thought to prevent binding to its cellular receptor and subsequent binding of lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), which are required events for the action of the two toxins: lethal toxin (LeTx) and edema toxin (EdTx). The bacterial capsule as well as the two toxins are virulence factors of B. anthracis. The levels of antibodies to PA must exceed a certain minimal threshold in order to induce and maintain protective immunity. Immunity can be generated by vaccination with purified PA, as well as spores and DNA plasmids that express PA. Although antibodies to PA address the toxemia component of anthrax disease, antibodies to additional virulence factors, including the capsule or somatic antigens in the spore, may be critical in development of complete, sterilizing immunity to anthrax exposure. The next generation anthrax vaccines will be derived from the thorough understanding of the interaction of virulence factors with human and animal hosts and the role the immune response plays in providing protective immunity. This article was published in Adv Drug Deliv Rev and referenced in Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version