alexa Molecular mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance.


Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Author(s): Fan H, Cook JA

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance has been widely investigated, but to date, the molecular mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance remain to be resolved clearly. The discovery of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family as the major receptors for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and other bacterial products has prompted a resurgence of interest in endotoxin tolerance mechanisms. Changes of cell surface molecules, signaling proteins, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators have been examined. During tolerance expression of LPS-binding protein (LBP), CD14, myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) and TLR2 are unchanged or up-regulated, whereas TLR4 is transiently suppressed or unchanged. Proximal post-receptor signaling proteins that are altered in tolerance include augmented degradation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK), and decreased TLR4-myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and IRAK-MyD88 association. Tolerance has also been shown to be associated with decreased Gi protein content and activity, decreased protein kinase C (PKC) activity, reduction in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) activity, and reduced activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) induced gene transactivation. However, not all signaling proteins and pathways are suppressed in tolerance and induction of specific anti-inflammatory proteins and signaling pathways may serve important counter inflammatory functions. The latter include induction of IRAK-M and suppressor of cytokine-signaling-1 (SOCS-1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, and increased or maintained expression of inhibitor-kappaB (IkappaB) isoforms. Also at the nuclear level, increase in the NF-kappaB subunit p50 homodimer expression and increased activation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors-gamma (PPARgamma) have been linked to tolerance phenotype. Although there are species and cellular variations in manifestation of the LPS tolerant phenotype, it is clear that the tolerance phenomena have evolved as a complex orchestrated counter regulatory response to inflammation. This article was published in J Endotoxin Res and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version