Author(s): Fujiyoshi M, Ozaki M
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Abstract Liver regeneration is a necessary process that most liver damage depends on for recovery. Regeneration is achieved by a complex interactive network consisting of liver cells (hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and stem cells) and extrahepatic organs (thyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, duodenum, and autonomous nervous system). The restoration of liver volume depends on hepatocyte proliferation, which includes initiation, proliferation, and termination phases. Hepatocytes are "primed" mainly by Kupffer cells via cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) and then "proliferation" and "cell growth" of hepatocytes are induced by the stimulations of cytokines and growth factors (HGF and TGF-alpha). Liver regeneration is achieved by cell proliferation and cell growth, where the IL-6/STAT3 and PI3-K/PDK1/Akt pathways play pivotal roles, respectively. IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates hepatocyte proliferation via cyclin D1/p21 and protects against cell death by upregulating FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Ref1, and MnSOD. PI3-K/PDK1/Akt is known to be responsible for regulation of cell size via its downstream molecules such as mTOR in addition to being known for its survival, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties. Although the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration have been actively studied, the mechanisms of liver regeneration must be elucidated and leveraged for the sufficient treatment of liver diseases.
This article was published in J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
and referenced in Medicinal & Aromatic Plants