Author(s): Matthaios D, Zarogoulidis P, Balgouranidou I, Chatzaki E, Kakolyris S
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Abstract Pancreatic cancer remains stubbornly resistant to many key cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and novel targeted therapies. The molecular heterogeneity of this cancer may account for therapy failures to date, although our growing arsenal of novel targeted agents could translate into patient survival. The main objectives of this review are to elucidate histological subtypes of pancreatic neoplasms that exhibit the characteristic of a gradual process of differentiation from benign entities to malignant ones. In addition, important genes, molecular abnormalities, and significant pathways of pancreatic cancer are analyzed and a potential clinical interpretation is presented (p16/cdkn2a, k-ras mutations, smad-4/tgf-/stat3, stk-11, braf, brca-2, neurotensin, mucs proteins, palb2, mitochondrial mutations, DNA mismatch repair genes, methylation, microrna expression, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, egfr mutations, the pi3k-akt-mtor pathway, the vegf pathway, heat shock proteins, cxcr4, the cox pathway, the src pathway, the hedgehog pathway, pancreatic stellate cells, a progression model, and molecular events in uncommon pancreatic tumors). Finally, future therapeutic directions are elucidated. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
This article was published in Oncology
and referenced in Translational Medicine