Author(s): Norman AW, Bishop JE, Bula CM, Olivera CJ, Mizwicki MT,
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Abstract The steroid hormone 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) [1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)] mediates through its widely distributed nuclear receptor (VDR(nuc)) regulation of gene transcription (genomic responses) and through a putative membrane receptor (VDR(mem)) a variety of rapid responses. Rapid responses studied in our laboratories include opening of voltage-gated calcium and chloride channels in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast cells, activation of MAP-kinase in human leukemia NB4 cells and chick intestinal cells, release of insulin by rat pancreatic beta-cells, and in chick duodena transcaltachia (the rapid hormonal stimulation of intestinal Ca(2+) transport). 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) is conformationally flexible (side chain, seco B-ring and A-ring) and accordingly is able to generate a large array of different shapes to serve as ligands for available receptors (VDR(nuc) and VDR(mem)) in the vitamin D endocrine system. Our laboratories have utilized a number of conformationally restricted analogs of 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) (from a library of several hundred analogs) to evaluate the preferred shape of the ligands for rapid and genomic responses. The determination of the X-ray structure of the 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-occupied VDR(nuc) revealed that the preferred ligand shape was a twisted 6-s-trans bowl shape [Molecular Cell 5 (2000) 173-179]. Optimal agonists for genomic responses include 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and other side chain conformationally flexible analogs such as 20-epi-1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) [approximately equal to 200-500-fold more potent than 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)] and 21-(3'-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) [an analog with two side chains] all which can achieve the preferred VDR(nuc) shape. In contrast, rapid responses require a 6-s-cis shape of the agonist ligand such as can be achieved by the natural hormone 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) or by analogs permanently locked in the 6-s-cis shape such as 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)lumisterol(3) or 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)-7-dehydrocholesterol. Additionally, we have discovered analogs that are specific in their antagonist properties for either rapid or genomic responses. Thus, 1 beta,25(OH)(2)D(3) is an antagonist of only rapid responses [via the VDR(mem)], while 23S-25-dehydro-1 alpha,25(OH)D(3)-26,23-lactone is an antagonist of only nuclear responses [via the VDR(nuc)]. In conclusion, we have presented evidence that 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) mediated rapid response and genomic response signal transduction pathways utilize differing shapes of ligand, both as agonists and antagonists.
This article was published in Steroids
and referenced in Journal of Arthritis