Author(s): Haskell CA, Cleary MD, Charo IF
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Abstract Fractalkine is a novel multidomain protein expressed on the surface of activated endothelial cells. Cells expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 adhere to fractalkine with high affinity, but it is not known if adherence requires G-protein activation and signal transduction. To investigate the cell adhesion properties of fractalkine, we created mutated forms of CX3CR1 that have little or no ability to transduce intracellular signals. Cells expressing signaling-incompetent forms of CX3CR1 bound rapidly and with high affinity to immobilized fractalkine in both static and flow assays. Video microscopy revealed that CX3CR1-expressing cells bound more rapidly to fractalkine than to VCAM-1 (60 versus 190 ms). Unlike VCAM-1, fractalkine did not mediate cell rolling, and after capture on fractalkine, cells did not dislodge. Finally, soluble fractalkine induced intracellular calcium fluxes and chemotaxis, but it did not activate integrins. Taken together these data provide strong evidence that CX3CR1, a seven-transmembrane domain receptor, mediates robust cell adhesion to fractalkine in the absence of G-protein activation and suggest a novel role for this receptor as an adhesion molecule.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology