alexa Monitoring of opiates, cannabinoids and their metabolites in wastewater, surface water and finished water in Catalonia, Spain.
General Science

General Science

Journal of Forensic Research

Author(s): Boleda MA, Galceran MA, Ventura F

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Abstract The occurrence of several opiates and cannabinoids in wastewaters and surface waters has been investigated. Most of the compounds (8 out of 11) were identified in both influent and effluents of fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Codeine, morphine, EDDP and methadone were detected in almost all samples with median values of 69ng/L; 63ng/L; 28ng/L and 18ng/L, respectively, whereas the main cannabinoid metabolite THC-COOH presented a median value of 57ng/L in influents. A rough estimate of heroin and cannabis consumption was performed from the analysis of target urinary metabolites in wastewater influents. Data obtained from influents of rural and urban WWTPs gave 0.07\% of heroin consumption (0.67\% for the largest urban WWTP) and 4\% consumption of cannabinoids, respectively for the population aged between 15 and 64 years old. The presence of opiates and cannabinoids in surface waters used for drinking water production showed the presence of the same compounds identified in wastewater effluents at concentrations up to 76ng/L for codeine; 31ng/L for EDDP; 12ng/L for morphine and 9ng/L for methadone at the intake of the DWTP. A complete removal of all studied drugs present in surface water was achieved during the potabilization process except for methadone and EDDP (91\% and 87\% removal, respectively). This article was published in Water Res and referenced in Journal of Forensic Research

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