Author(s): Bruder SP, Horowitz MC, Mosca JD, Haynesworth SE
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Abstract Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against the surface of osteoblastic cells have been used to characterize the osteogenic lineage. In view of the paucity of probes against the surface of normal human osteogenic cells, we sought to generate McAbs which could be used for both in vivo and in vitro studies. We raised a series of McAbs against early osteoblastic cell surface antigens by immunizing mice with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that had been directed into the osteogenic lineage in vitro. After screening against the surface of osteogenic cells at various stages of differentiation in vitro, as well as evaluating in situ reactivity with human fetal limbs, we isolated three hybridoma cell lines referred to as SB-10, SB-20, and SB-21. Immunocytochemical analyses during osteogenic differentiation demonstrate that SB-10 reacts with MSCs and osteoprogenitors, but no longer reacts with cells once alkaline phosphatase (APase) is expressed. Flow cytometry documents that SB-10 is expressed on the surface of all purified, culture-expanded human MSCs, thus providing further evidence that these cells are a homogeneous population. By contrast, SB-20 and SB-21 do not react with the progenitor cells in situ, but bind to a subset of the APase-positive osteoblasts. None of these antibodies stain terminally differentiated osteocytes in sections of developing bone. Furthermore, these McAbs were not observed to react in samples from chick, rat, rabbit, canine, or bovine bone, although selected extraskeletal human tissues were immunostained. In all cell and tissue specimens examined, SB-20 immunostaining is identical to that observed with SB-21. We have used these McAbs to refine our understanding of the discrete cellular transitions that constitute the osteogenic cell lineage. We suggest a refined model for understanding osteoblast differentiation that is based on the proposition that the sequential acquisition and loss of specific cell surface molecules can be used to define positions of individual cells within the osteogenic cell lineage.
This article was published in Bone
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy