Author(s): Vodounon Alode Cyrille, Skibo Yulia, Aikou Nicolas, Akpona Simon, Abramova Zinaida Ivanovna
Background: The deregulation of the apoptosis of immune-competent cell has been suggested to play a key role in the development of the inflammatory reactions in allergic diseases like asthma. This study aimed to investi- gate the particularity of apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in aller- gic asthmatic patients (light and severe persistent asthma). The study of apoptosis peripheral blood lymphocytes were assessed by electron and optic microscopes and flow cytometry.
Result: The apoptosis of the lymphocytes of asthmatics shows structural and biochemical particularities. The initial phase of the apoptosis is ex- pressed through the correlation between the number of cells with a de- crease in the mitochondrial potential and the translocation of the phosphatidylserine on the surface of lymphocytes of patients. The exten- sion of the survival of lymphocytes in asthmatics of light severity is asso- ciated with the increase of the proliferating activity on the slowdown of the apoptosis of cells. On the other hand, the increase of the rate of self-anti- bodies directed against DNA in asthma of serious severity is associated with the death of lymphocytes by means of programmed necrosis, followed by the development of the alteration of the nearby cells and the inflammatory reactions, but also the phagocytosis of the remaining cellular frag- ments and the development of the immune response, if these cellular frag- ments contain chromatin associated with antigens.
Conclusion: The results obtained (especially with the patients of serious severity) allowed to understand the impact of the apoptosis on the immu- nity of the patients and to forecast the degree of serious asthma. Further study in immunology will benefit from these findings in order to better understand the process of apoptosis in atopic bronchial asthma patients. It appears to be obvious that diseases such as cancer, autoimmune disorders may derive benefit from such studies.