Author(s): Wang HW, Lin CC, Kuo CF, Liu CP, Lee CM, Wang HW, Lin CC, Kuo CF, Liu CP, Lee CM
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) remains the leading cause of opportunistic infections and deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. We would like to identify the predictors of mortality of these patients at initial presentation, and assist clinicians to aware the patients in risk of mortality earlier. METHODS: From 1997 to 2009, adults with HIV infection and a discharge diagnosis of PJP at Mackay Memorial Hospital were included in this retrospective study. Patients' demographic data and laboratory data were analyzed by reviewing the medical records. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients were included in this study. The overall mortality rate was 37.7\%. Univariate analysis revealed several host factors significantly related to mortality, including age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO(2)), percentage of lymphocyte, percentage of CD4 lymphocyte, CD4 counts, serum total protein, serum albumin, and blood urea nitrogen. Multivariate analysis identified three independent predictors associated with mortality, i.e. systolic blood pressure ≤110 mmHg [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.88; 95\% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-12.83; p = 0.03], PaO(2) at room air ≤60 mmHg (AOR 4.97; 95\% CI 1.34-18.23; p = 0.01), and lymphocytes ≤10\% (AOR 8.19; 95\% CI 1.48-45.36; p = 0.02). With these predictors, we can stratify patients into three groups with increasing risks for mortality, ≤one predictor (mortality rate 14\%), any two predictors (47\%), and three predictors (75\%). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected patients with PJP can be clinically stratified by three prognostic variables identified by multivariate analysis. Early recognition of patients in higher risk can assist clinicians to prevent rapid deterioration and seek for better outcomes. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This article was published in J Microbiol Immunol Infect
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research