Author(s): Blatter DD, Bigler ED, Gale SD, Johnson SC, Anderson CV,
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Abstract PURPOSE: To determine the magnitude and time course of changes in the volume of brain and intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces in patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury and to assess the relationship between these findings and long-term cognitive traumatic outcome. METHODS: Axial intermediate and T2-weighted MR images of 123 patients with traumatic brain injury were quantified using a multispectral segmentation algorithm. Measurements were corrected for differences in age, sex, and head size using a previously reported normative database. Brain morphology was compared across groups formed on the basis of chronicity of injury. Cognitive functioning and severity of injury were statistically correlated with brain measurements. RESULTS: Time-dependent expansion of CSF spaces and decreases in brain volume were observed. Increases in ventricular CSF volume, particularly in the temporal horns and third ventricle, preceded subsequent changes in total brain and subarachnoid CSF. High and moderate correlation was observed between volume measures and cognitive outcome and injury severity. Particularly strong was the relation between the volume of the left temporal horn and verbal IQ scores. CONCLUSION: Predictable time-dependent atrophic changes occurring after traumatic brain injury can be quantified using MR volumetric studies. Our results suggest significant contributions by both diffuse and focal mechanisms of injury. In the postacute period (more than 70 days after injury), MR volumetric studies may be predictive of eventual cognitive outcome.
This article was published in AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
and referenced in Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism