Author(s): Hisada M, Garber JE, Fung CY, Fraumeni JF Jr, Li FP
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by early-onset breast cancer, sarcomas, and other cancers in children and young adults. Members of families with this syndrome also develop multiple primary cancers, but the frequency is unknown. To approach this issue, we quantified the incidence of second and third primary cancers in individuals from 24 Li-Fraumeni kindreds originally diagnosed with cancer during the period from 1968 through 1986. METHODS: The relative risk (RR) of subsequent cancers and 95\% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by use of population-based incidence data from the Connecticut Cancer Registry. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine the cumulative probability (+/- standard error) of subsequent cancers. RESULTS: Among 200 Li-Fraumeni syndrome family members diagnosed with cancer, 30 (15\%) developed a second cancer. Eight individuals (4\%) had a third cancer, while four (2\%) eventually developed a fourth cancer. Overall, the RR of occurrence of a second cancer was 5.3 (95\% CI = 2.8-7.8), with a cumulative probability of second cancer occurrence of 57\% (+/- 10\%) at 30 years after diagnosis of a first cancer. RRs of second cancers occurring in families with this syndrome were 83.0 (95\% CI = 36.9-187.6), 9.7 (95\% CI = 4.9-19.2), and 1.5 (95\% CI = 0.5-4.2) for individuals with a first cancer at ages 0-19 years, 20-44 years, and 45 years or more, respectively. Thirty (71\%) of 42 subsequent cancers in this group were component cancers of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the general population, members of Li-Fraumeni syndrome families have an exceptionally high risk of developing multiple primary cancers. The excess risk of additional primary cancers is mainly for cancers that are characteristic of Li-Fraumeni syndrome, with the highest risk observed for survivors of childhood cancers. Cancer survivors in these families should be closely monitored for early manifestations of new cancers.
This article was published in J Natl Cancer Inst
and referenced in Archives of Surgical Oncology