Author(s): Afewerk Y, Clausen PH, Abebe G, Tilahun G, Mehlitz D
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Abstract Investigations were carried out to determine the prophylactic activity of isometamidium chloride in village populations of cattle naturally infected with trypanosomes in Metekel district, northwest Ethiopia. In a cross-sectional study in March 1997, 484 randomly selected cattle from four villages were examined for trypanosome infections by the dark ground/phase contrast buffy coat technique (BCT). The trypanosome prevalence was 17.2\%. Trypanosoma congolense was the dominant species accounting for 47.6\% of the overall infections. Fifty parasitaemic cattle from two villages were treated with isometainidium chloride (Trypamidium(R)) at a prophylactic dose of 1.0 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) and thereafter monitored on a monthly basis for parasitaemia. Trypanosomes were detected in six cattle within 1 month and in 18 cattle within 2 months of treatment. Twenty three percent (6/26) of cattle infected with T. congolense at the time of treatment were detected parasitaemic with this trypanosome species 1 month after treatment. Mice were infected with three T. congolense isolates obtained from cattle which were detected parasitaemic within one or 2 months after isometamidium treatment. The mice were subsequently treated with ranges of doses of isometamidium chloride or diminazene aceturate (Berenil(R)) and thereafter monitored for parasitaemia for a period of 60 days. Isometamidium chloride at doses of 0.5-4.0 mg/kg b.w. and diminazene aceturate at doses of 3.5-28.0 mg/kg b.w. failed to cure T. congolense infections in any of the animals. Three clones were derived from one of the isolates; each clone expressed high levels of resistance to both trypanocides when tested in mice. Based on these results it is concluded that the prophylactic activity of isometamidium is greatly reduced for some of the T. congolense populations present in the area, and in addition there is resistance to diminazene aceturate in this trypanosome species.
This article was published in Acta Trop
and referenced in Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology