Author(s): Tobin G, Giglio D, Lundgren O
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Abstract Acetylcholine is a transmitter in preganglionic autonomic and postganglionic parasympathetic nerves and a non-neuronal paracrine mediator in the alimentary tract. Acetylcholine is involved in the control of almost any function within these organ systems, and almost every cell type expresses multiple muscarinic receptor subtypes. Although muscarinic receptors at non-neuronal effector cells commonly are of the M3 subtype, the population usually consists of a mixture of muscarinic receptor subtypes often co-acting postsynaptically. However, the pattern of heterogeneity of varies between different tissues. The population in gland parenchymal tissue often consists of a mixture of M1 and M3 receptors, smooth muscle tissue of the gut of M2 and M3, blood vessels of M1, M3, M4 and M5 and neuronal cells of M1 and M4. Nitric oxide production, effects on inflammation and proliferation may involve M1, M3 and M5 receptors. Muscarinic receptors expressed on nerve terminals may indirectly modulate the responses by inhibition or facilitation of neuronal transmission in the autonomic nervous system. The present review describes signalling mechanisms, expression and functional effects of muscarinic receptors in salivary glands and in the gastrointestinal tract.
This article was published in J Physiol Pharmacol
and referenced in Dentistry