Author(s): Rafii F, Hall JD, Cerniglia CE
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Abstract Various azo dyes currently approved by the US FDA for use in foods, drugs and cosmetics are reduced by anaerobic bacteria from the human intestinal tract. These bacteria with azoreductase activities include several Clostridium species. Seven of these azo dyes and their reduction products following incubation with a Clostridium sp. were evaluated for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. No mutagenicity was induced in either TA98 or TA100 by any of the seven azo dyes or the reduced metabolites when tested at concentrations as high as 200 microg/plate, with or without exogenous metabolic activation by rat liver fraction S-9.
This article was published in Food Chem Toxicol
and referenced in Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation