alexa Mutagenicity testing of protein-containing and biological samples using the Ames Salmonella plate incorporation test and the fluctuation test.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Clinical Toxicology

Author(s): Nylund L, Einist P

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Abstract Mutagenicity testing of biological samples and proteins is complicated by the presence of histidine and histidine-related growth factors which may produce a false positive result in the Ames/Salmonella plate incorporation test. A bioassay method, utilizing an automated dispenser-photometer and Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1535 as the indicator bacteria, was used to estimate the presence of histidine-related growth factors in three enzyme solutions submitted for mutagenicity testing. One of the solutions was clearly positive in the Ames/Salmonella test and also contained the highest amount of L-histidine-HCl-equivalents. The two other solutions, with low or undetectable amounts of L-histidine-HCl-equivalents, gave equivocal and negative results, respectively, in the Ames/Salmonella test. Studies were also performed with strains TA98, TA100 and TA1535 to determine the amount of added L-histidine-HCl that would result in a 'positive' result in the Ames/Salmonella test. Because the minimum amount of L-histidine-HCl required to double the number of revertant colonies was 150 nmol/plate, and the maximum amount of L-histidine-HCl-equivalents supplied by the enzyme preparations was 40 nmol/plate at the highest tested dose, the mutagenicity test results of the enzyme solutions cannot be explained solely by histidine or related compounds. Smokers' and non-smokers' urines, concentrated with liquid extraction (CHCl3) and adsorbent (XAD-2 and XAD-2/Sep-Pak C18) techniques, were studied to reveal differences in efficiencies to extract histidine and histidine-related compounds in the urines. Amounts of 'histidine' in concentrates of urine were measured using the bioassay method and a chemical method employing derivatization with fluorescamine. The fluorescamine method also efficiently detected 3-methyl-L-histidine, a product of muscle metabolism excreted in urine, which was found to be unable to support auxotrophic growth in TA1535, leading to exaggerated estimations of the auxotrophic growth enhancing properties of urine extracts. The urine extracts, and pure L-histidine-HCl, were tested using a two-step fluctuation test to estimate auxotrophic growth factor effects in this type of test. Because of a strong dilution effect when adding the histidine-free selection medium, the fluctuation test employed in this study was not found to be particularly sensitive to growth factors. The results of this study indicate that use of a bioassay, employing the same indicator bacteria as the mutagenicity test themselves, is a reliable way to measure histidine-related growth factors in biological samples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
This article was published in Mutat Res and referenced in Journal of Clinical Toxicology

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