Author(s): Miura K, Sekine T, Takahashi K, Takita J, Harita Y,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Mutations in the ATP6V1B1 and the ATP6V0A4 genes cause primary autosomal-recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Large deletions of either gene in patients with dRTA have not been described. METHODS: The ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 genes were directly sequenced in 11 Japanese patients with primary dRTA from nine unrelated kindreds. Large heterozygous deletions were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The clinical features of the 11 patients were also investigated. RESULTS: Novel mutations in the ATP6V1B1 gene were identified in two kindreds, including frameshift, in-frame insertion and nonsense mutations. Large deletions in the ATP6V0A4 gene were identified in two kindreds. Exon 15 of ATP6V0A4 was not amplified in one patient, with a long PCR confirming compound heterozygous deletions of 3.7- and 6.9-kb nucleotides, including all of exon 15. Direct DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous frameshift mutation in ATP6V0A4 in another patient, with quantitative real-time PCR indicating that all exons up to exon 8 were deleted in one allele. Clinical investigation showed that four of the six patients with available clinical data presented with hyperammonemia at onset. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, these dRTA patients are the first to show large deletions involving one or more entire exons of the ATP6V0A4 gene. Quantitative PCR amplification may be useful in detecting heterozygous large deletions. These results expand the spectrum of mutations in the ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1 genes associated with primary dRTA and provide insight into possible structure-function relationships.
This article was published in Nephrol Dial Transplant
and referenced in Journal of Clinical Case Reports