alexa Myoclonic disorders: a practical approach for diagnosis and treatment.


Journal of Spine

Author(s): Kojovic M, Cordivari C, Bhatia K

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Myoclonus is a sudden, brief, involuntary muscle jerk. It is caused by abrupt muscle contraction, in the case of positive myoclonus, or by sudden cessation of ongoing muscular activity, in the case of negative myoclonus (NM). Myoclonus may be classified in a number of ways, although classification based on the underlying physiology is the most useful from the therapeutic viewpoint. Given the large number of possible causes of myoclonus, it is essential to take a good history, to clinically characterize myoclonus and to look for additional findings on examination in order to limit the list of possible investigations. With regards to the history, the age of onset, the character of myoclonus, precipitating or alleviating factors, family history and associated symptoms and signs are important. On examination, it is important to see whether the myoclonus appears at rest, on keeping posture or during action, to note the distribution of jerks and to look for the stimulus sensitivity. Electrophysiological tests are very helpful in determining whether myoclonus is cortical, subcortical or spinal. A single pharmacological agent rarely control myoclonus and therefore polytherapy with a combination of drugs, often in large dosages, is usually needed. Generally, antiepileptic drugs such as valproate, levetiracetam and piracetam are effective in cortical myoclonus, but less effective in other forms of myoclonus. Clonazepam may be helpful with all types of myoclonus. Focal and segmental myoclonus, irrespective of its origin, may be treated with botulinum toxin injections, with variable success.
This article was published in Ther Adv Neurol Disord and referenced in Journal of Spine

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version