Author(s): Matsumoto RR, McCracken KA, Pouw B, Miller J, Bowen WD,
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Abstract Cocaine binds to sigma receptors with comparable affinity to its well-established interaction with dopamine transporters. Previous studies have shown BD1008 (N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylamine) to have high affinity and selectivity for sigma receptors, and to additionally attenuate the locomotor stimulatory effects of cocaine. Therefore, in the present study, three N-alkyl substituted analogs of BD1008 were characterized in receptor binding and behavioral studies: BD1060 (N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylamine), BD1067 (N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-ethyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylamine), and BD1052 (N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-allyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethylamine). Similarly to BD1008, all three analogs exhibited high affinity and selectivity for sigma receptors. In behavioral studies, BD1008, BD1060 or BD1067 attenuated cocaine-induced convulsions and lethality in Swiss Webster mice. The protective effects appear to be mediated through sigma receptor antagonism because traditional sigma receptor antagonists with high to moderate affinity for these receptors also attenuated the behavioral toxicity of cocaine. In contrast, traditional and novel sigma receptor agonists such as di-o-tolylguanidine and BD1052 worsened the behavioral toxicity of cocaine. To further characterize the actions of the N-alkyl substituted compounds, they were microinjected into the rat red nucleus, a functional assay of sigma receptor activity, where they produced agonist vs. antagonist actions that were consistent with their effects on cocaine-induced behaviors. Together, the data demonstrate that BD1008, BD1060 or BD1067 can attenuate the behavioral toxicity of cocaine, most likely through functional antagonism of sigma receptors.
This article was published in Eur J Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability