Author(s): da Silva PS, Fonseca MC, Iglesias SB, Junior EL, de Aguiar VE,
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Abstract PURPOSE: Nebulized L-epinephrine has been recommended for the treatment of viral croup. However, the few studies assessing its effect on post-extubation stridor (PES) have shown conflicting results. We compared the efficacy and safety of nebulized L-epinephrine at three different doses for the treatment of PES. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial including all consecutive children with a PES score of ≥4 (Westley score). The primary efficacy outcome was change in PES score at 40 min. A reduction of ≥2 points in stridor score was defined as clinically significant. A total of 96 patients were randomly assigned to receive one of three doses of nebulized L-epinephrine upon achieving a PES score of 4 or more following extubation. Stridor score and vital signs were recorded before treatment, and at 20, 40, 60 and 180 min after nebulization. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar among all study groups. No significant difference was detected among the treatments based on change in Westley score by intent-to-treat analysis. In addition, the difference in the number of patients who clinically improved among the treatment groups was not significant (p = 0.54). Patients receiving 5 ml nebulized epinephrine had a significant increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 40 and 180 min. CONCLUSION: Nebulized L-epinephrine at doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 5 ml demonstrated a lack of dose response in effect on PES and a modestly clinically significant increase in undesired side effects (heart rate and blood pressure) at higher doses.
This article was published in Intensive Care Med
and referenced in Pediatrics & Therapeutics