Author(s): Yaroshchuk AE
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Abstract Negative rejections of ions in pressure-driven membrane processes can be caused by several distinct mechanisms. In a number of cases, in a final count, the phenomenon is brought about by increased concentration of an ion in the membrane phase. In the case of charged membranes, the increased concentration has to be accompanied by a weakening of electric field of filtration potential, which normally retards counter-ions and prevents the increased concentrations from manifesting themselves in negative rejections. This occurs in charge-mosaic membranes due to the so-called current circulation phenomenon or in electrolyte mixtures due to the presence of more mobile counter-ions. Negative rejections can also occur for ions whose concentration is decreased in the membrane phase. This occurs in electrolyte mixtures due to the acceleration of such ions by the electric field of diffusion potential arising because of strong rejections of other mixture components. This phenomenon is most pronounced for single-charge ions in the presence of predominant amounts of ions of higher charge of the same sign. All those mechanisms are considered within the scope of a common theoretical framework. An attempt is made of a tentative classification of mechanisms of negative rejections. An overview of available literature data is provided and it is shown that in a number of cases the published information is not sufficiently detailed for a reliable identification of the mechanisms. It is concluded that the studies of negative rejections could be a valuable membrane characterization tool but they need to be more systematic and targeted to fulfil this role.
This article was published in Adv Colloid Interface Sci
and referenced in Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology