Author(s): Nair P, Rothblum S, Hebel R
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Abstract This study evaluated the neonatal outcome of infants with evidence of fetal exposure to cocaine, opiates, and cannabinoids. Subjects were from the newborn nursery of an inner-city university teaching hospital. Meconium from 141 infants admitted to the full-term nursery was analyzed for metabolites of opiates, cocaine, and cannabinoids. The population was 72\% African-American; 82\% had medical assistance; history of drug use was reported in the medical records in 18\%; mean maternal age was 24.2 years; mean birth weight was 3,234 +/- 502 g; and neonatal abstinence syndrome was reported in 7\%. Meconium analysis data showed the following: 52.5\% were drug-free; cocaine was present in 31\%, opiates in 18\% (cocaine and/or opiates 39\%), and cannabinoids in 17\%. In 38 infants in whom urine toxicology was obtained for clinical indications, meconium was more sensitive than urine in detecting drug exposure (55.3\% vs 31.5\%). There was no significant difference between cocaine/opiate-exposed and drug-free infants in race, socioeconomic status, maternal age, birth weight, head circumference, length, and Apgar scores. Cocaine/opiate-exposed infants had greater length of stay and increased frequency of maternal sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy, with a trend toward a higher percent with fetal distress.
This article was published in Clin Pediatr (Phila)
and referenced in Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation