alexa Nephrotoxicity and the proximal tubule. Insights from cadmium.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

Author(s): Thvenod F

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a non-essential heavy metal, which is taken up from the environment into the body through pulmonary and enteral pathways. The S1 segment of the kidney proximal tubule (PT) is a major target of chronic Cd(2+) toxicity. Renal dysfunction develops in up to 7\% of the general population and in its most severe form displays major features of Fanconi syndrome, such as a defective protein, amino acid, glucose, bicarbonate and phosphate reabsorption. The major pathway for Cd(2+) uptake by PT cells (PTCs) in vivo is apical endocytosis of Cd(2+) complexed to the high-affinity metal-binding protein metallothionein (MT), which may be receptor-mediated. MT is subsequently degraded in endo-lysosomes, and Cd(2+) is liberated for translocation into the cytosolic compartment, possibly using transporters for Fe(2+), Zn(2+) or Cu(2+), such as the divalent metal transporter DMT1. Free Cd(2+) ions in the extracellular space are translocated across apical and/or basolateral PTC membranes into the cytosol via transporters, whose identity remains unknown. Cytosolic Cd(2+) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which deplete endogenous radical scavengers. ROS also damage a variety of transport proteins, including the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which are subsequently degraded by the proteasome and endo-lysosomal proteases. Cd(2+) causes mitochondrial swelling and release of cytochrome C. If these ROS-mediated stress events are not balanced by repair processes, affected cells undergo apoptosis. But Cd(2+) also induces the upregulation of cytoprotective stress and metal-scavenging proteins, such as MT. In addition, Cd(2+) upregulates the detoxifying pump multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein, which appears to protect PTCs against Cd(2+)-induced apoptosis. Thus, Cd(2+) interferes with various cellular events ranging from mechanisms of induction of programmed cell death to activation of cell survival genes. A better understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in Cd(2+) nephrotoxicity should provide insights into other heavy metal (e.g. Pb(2+), Hg(2+)) nephropathies and various forms of acquired Fanconi syndrome. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel This article was published in Nephron Physiol and referenced in Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords