alexa Neural mechanisms of drug reinforcement.
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Author(s): Koob GF

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The brain substrates involved in the effect of cocaine on brain stimulation reward, in the psychomotor activation associated with cocaine, and in cocaine self-administration appear to be focused on the medial forebrain bundle and its connections with the basal forebrain, notably the nucleus accumbens. Chronic access to cocaine produces a withdrawal state as reflected in increases in brain stimulation reward thresholds, and this change in reward threshold appears to be opposite to the actions of the drug administered acutely. These effects are thought to reflect a change in the activity of reward elements in the medial forebrain bundle and may be responsible for the negative reinforcing state associated with the anhedonia of cocaine withdrawal. Opiate receptors particularly sensitive to the reinforcing effects of heroin also appear to be located in the region of the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area. There is good evidence for both dopamine-dependent and dopamine-independent opioid interactions in the ventral tegmental-nucleus accumbens connection. In addition, the opiate receptors in the region of the nucleus accumbens may become sensitized during the course of opiate withdrawal and thus become responsible for the aversive stimulus effects of opiate dependence. Reliable measures of the acute reinforcing effects of ethanol have been established in rat models, and substantial evidence exists to show that non-deprived rats will orally self-administer pharmacologically relevant amounts of ethanol in lever-press choice situations. Neuropharmacological studies of ethanol reinforcement in non-dependent rats suggest important roles for serotonin, GABA and dopamine. A role for opioid peptides in ethanol reinforcement may reflect more general actions of opioid peptides in consummatory behavior. Studies of ethanol dependence have implicated brain GABAergic and CRF systems in the more motivational aspects of withdrawal. Future studies will need to focus on the common neurobiologic changes associated with all these drugs, particularly regarding their hedonic and motivational properties.
This article was published in Ann N Y Acad Sci and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords