alexa Neuroendocrine control of growth hormone in fish.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

Author(s): Canosa LF, Chang JP, Peter RE, Canosa LF, Chang JP, Peter RE

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Abstract The biological actions of growth hormone (GH) are pleiotropic, including growth promotion, energy mobilization, gonadal development, appetite, and social behavior. Accordingly, the regulatory network for GH is complex and includes many endocrine and environmental factors. In fish, the neuroendocrine control of GH is multifactorial with multiple inhibitors and stimulators of pituitary GH secretion. In fish, GH release is under a tonic negative control exerted mainly by somatostatin. Sex steroid hormones and nutritional status influence the level of brain expression and effectiveness of some of these GH neuroendocrine regulatory factors, suggesting that their relative importance differs under different physiological conditions. At the pituitary level, some, if not all, somatotropes can respond to multiple regulators. Therefore, ligand- and function-specificity, as well as the integrative responses to multiple signals must be achieved at the level of signal transduction mechanisms. Results from investigations on a limited number of stimulatory and inhibitory GH-release regulators indicate that activation of different but convergent intracellular pathways and the utilization of specific intracellular Ca(2+) stores are some of the strategies utilized. However, more work remains to be done in order to better understand the integrative mechanisms of signal transduction at the somatotrope level and the relevance of various GH regulators in different physiological circumstances. This article was published in Gen Comp Endocrinol and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

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