Author(s): Reeve AB, Pearce NC, Patel K, Augustus KV, Novembre FJ
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Abstract SIVsmmFGb is a lentivirus swarm that induces neuropathology in over 90\% of infected pigtailed macaques and reliably models central nervous system HIV infection in people. We have previously studied SIVsmmFGb genetic diversity and compartmentalization during acute infection, but little is understood about diversity and intertissue compartmentalization during chronic infection. Tissue-specific pressure appeared to affect the diversity of Nef sequences between tissues, but changes to the Env V1 region and Int diversity were similar across all tissues. At 2 months postinfection, compartmentalization of the SIVsmmFGb env V1 region, nef, and int was noted between different brain regions and between brain regions and lymph nodes. Convergent evolution of the nef and env V1 region, and divergent evolution of int, was noted between compartments and all genes demonstrated intratissue temporal segregation. For the env V1 region and nef, temporal segregation was stronger in the brain regions than the periphery, but little difference between tissues was noted for int. Positive selection of the env V1 region appeared in most tissues at 2 months postinfection, whereas nef and int faced negative selection in all tissues. Positive selection of the env V1 region sequences increased in some brain regions over time. SIVsmmFGb nef and int sequences each saw increased negative selection in brain regions, and one lymph node, over the course of infection. Functional differences between tissue compartments decreased over time for int and env V1 region sequences, but increased for nef sequences.
This article was published in AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
and referenced in Journal of Neuroinfectious Diseases