Author(s): Bartels J, Andreasen D, Ehirim P, Mao H, Seibert S,
Abstract Share this page
Abstract The neurotrophic electrode (NE) is designed for longevity and stability of recorded signals. To achieve this aim it induces neurites to grow through its glass tip, thus anchoring it in neuropil. The glass tip contains insulated gold wires for recording the activity of the myelinated neurites that grow into the tip. Neural signals inside the tip are electrically insulated from surrounding neural activity by the glass. The most recent version of the electrode has four wires inside its tip to maximize the number of discriminable signals recorded from ingrown neurites, and has a miniature connector. Flexible coiled, insulated gold wires connect to electronics on the skull that remain subcutaneous. The implanted electronics consist of differential amplifiers, FM transmitters, and a sine wave at power up for tuning and calibration. Inclusion criteria for selecting locked-in subjects include medical stability, normal cognition, and strong caregiver support. The implant target is localized via an fMRI-naming task. Final localization at surgery is achieved by 3D stereotaxic localization. During recording, implanted electronics are powered by magnetic induction across an air gap. Coiled antennas placed on the scalp over the implanted transmitters receive the amplified FM transmitter outputs. Data is processed as described elsewhere where stability and longevity issues are addressed. Five subjects have been successfully implanted with the NE. Recorded signals persisted for over 4 years in two subjects who died from underlying illnesses, and continue for over 3 years in our present subject.
This article was published in J Neurosci Methods
and referenced in Journal of Bioengineering & Biomedical Science