Author(s): van der Valk M, Kastelein JJ, Murphy RL, van Leth F, Katlama C,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection is associated with elevated triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels which may expose patients to an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We report the lipid and lipoprotein profiles of a representative subset of treatment-naive patients included in the Atlantic Study. This study compares patients treated with stavudine and didanosine plus the random addition of either the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine (NVP), the protease inhibitor indinavir or the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine. METHODS: Lipids and lipoproteins were quantified from prospectively collected and cryopreserved plasma samples obtained at weeks 0, 6 and 24. RESULTS: We observed a striking increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (49\%), apolipoprotein AI (19\%), lipoprotein AI (38\%) and HDL particle size (3\%) in the NVP-treated patients (n = 34) at week 24. Much less pronounced changes in these parameters were seen to a similar extent both in patients receiving lamivudine (n = 39) and indinavir (n = 41). LDL-cholesterol also increased significantly both in the NVP and indinavir arms, but only in the NVP arm was this offset by a significant reduction (14\%) in total over HDL-cholesterol ratio. Using a multivariate linear regression model, adjusting for CD4 cell count and plasma HIV RNA both at baseline and during treatment, randomization to the NVP-containing arm remained significant in explaining the observed changes in HDL-cholesterol and other HDL-related parameters. CONCLUSIONS: In HIV-1 infected patients treated with a regimen of stavudine, didanosine and NVP we found changes in lipids and lipoproteins which are associated with a sharp decrease in risk for CAD in other settings. If confirmed in larger studies, these findings both may influence the initial choice of therapy for HIV-1 infection, and might lead to novel approaches targeted at raising HDL-cholesterol for CAD prevention.
This article was published in AIDS
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals