Author(s): Cuny T, Guerci B, Cariou B
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Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most troubling chronic disease regarding the huge number of new cases diagnosed annually worldwide. Currently available oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) attempt to correct the underlying pathophysiological dysfunctions leading to T2DM: insulin resistance for the insulin sensitizers (metformin and thiazolidinediones), and impaired insulin secretion for the insulin secretagogues (sulfonylureas, glinides and more recently incretin mimetics). Incretin-based therapies include GLP-1 receptor agonists that provide pharmacologic levels of GLP-1 receptor stimulation beyond those that would occur from the action of the native hormone alone, and dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors that preserve endogenous GLP-1 by decreasing its degradation by the DPP-4 enzyme. In 2012, the development of new OADs aims to target untapped pathophysiological aspects of the disease (kidney homeostasis, glucagon signalling, chronic low-grade inflammation) for tailoring glycaemic control in T2DM. SGLT-2 inhibitors are the most advanced new OADs that lower HbA1C by increasing glycosuria and lead to a moderate weight loss. Although there is genuine hope that the range of OADs can be extended, a long-term evaluation of side effects and true clinical benefits is necessary. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
This article was published in Ann Endocrinol (Paris)
and referenced in Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology