Author(s): Li D, Mattoo P, Keller JE
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Abstract Hyperimmune monovalent antitoxins to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B have been produced by immunizing horses with newly developed formalin toxoids. After primary immunization, horses developed acceptable prophylactic antibody titers (1-5 IU/mL). Three horses received additional toxoid booster injections to induce hyperimmune antibody titers with antitoxin-A and antitoxin-B titers reaching peaks of approximately 2000 IU/mL and 150-625 IU/mL, respectively. Titers were quantified throughout the process by antigen-capture ELISA and by in-vivo neutralization. ELISA titers and neutralization titers correlated (R² ∼0.62-0.92), however, unique correlations between in-vitro and in-vivo titers were observed for each horse. Monovalent antitoxin pools were made by combining plasma that had been collected twice via plasmaphoresis several months after primary immunization. Neutralizing units were established for each pool relative to the current US and WHO reference standards. Titers were determined at the L(+)/10 and L(+)/40 toxin dose for Toxin types A and B, respectively, and U.S. and international units were assigned to each monovalent antitoxin. Avidity of the new Anti-A pool was equivalent to the WHO Anti-A reference at the L(+), L(+)/10 and L(+)/30 dose. Each monovalent plasma pool failed to cross-neutralize other botulinum neurotoxin serotypes indicating a high degree of specificity of each antitoxin for the toxin serotype used during immunization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This article was published in Biologicals
and referenced in Journal of Clinical Toxicology